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情态动词+不定式完成体

作者:admin    文章来源:盐田区外国语学校    更新时间:2018-04-16
“情态动词+不定式完成体”结构既是高考的热点,也是同学们在学习中普遍感到难于学习和理解的知识点。can与could在表示疑问推测和否定推测时,没有时态上的区别,只是用could时,在语气上显得更为委婉些。subject+may/might+have+past participle+ ...句型中的may 和might 也没有时态上的区别,但是might 和may 相比,语气更加不肯定,可能性更小,多用于虚拟语气中。
  【关键词】 “情态动词+不定式完成体”结构 句型 推测 虚拟语气
  在“情态动词+不定式完成体”结构中,由于情态动词的不同,其句型表达的意义也就不同。这一句型既是高考的热点,也是同学们在学习中普遍感到难于学习和理解的知识点。现在将该句型进行总结,供在教学和学习中参考。
  1. 对过去情况推测句型的分析
  1.1 can/could + subject + have + past participle+ ...该句型表达对过去情况的推测,用于疑问句。例如:
  —Can they have missed the train?
  —Yes, they may have.
  1.2 subject+must+have+past participle+ ...该句型表示对过去的情况进行肯定的推测。例如:
  I didn’t hear the phone. I _______ asleep.
  A. must be B. must have been
  C. should be D. should have been
  答案:B
  1.3 subject+ can/could +not+have+past participle+ ....该句型表示对过去情况否定的推测。例如:
  (1)—There were already five people in the car, but they managed to take me as well.
  —It _______ a comfortable journey.
  A. can’t be B. have shouldn’t be
  C. mustn’t have been D. couldn’t have been
  答案:D
  (2)You ________ just now; he has gone to Japan.
  A. can’t see him B. can’t have seen him
  C. mustn’t see him D. mustn’t have seen him
  答案:B
  注意:can 与could 在表示疑问推测和否定推测时,没有时态上的区别,只是用could时,在语气上显得更为委婉些。
  1.4 subject+may/might+have+past participle+ ...该句型表示对过去情况的可能推测。例如:
  He felt unhappy. He ________ us.
  A. may have misunderstand
  B. may misunderstand
  C. might have misunderstood
  D. might misunderstand
  答案:C
  注意:该句型中的may 和might 也没有时态上的区别,但是might 和may 相比,语气更加不肯定,可能性更小,多用于虚拟语气中。
  2. 对过去做过或者不做以及不需要做的事情的句型的分析
  2.1 subject + should /ought to + have + past participle + ... 该句型表示对过去不应该做而做了的事表示责备之意。例如:
  I told sally how to get there, but perhaps I _______ for her.
  A. had to write it out
  B. must have written it out
  C. should have written it out
  D. ought to write it out
  答案:C
  2.2 subject + ought +not +to+ have+past participle+ ...这个句型表达了对过去不应该做而做了的事表示责备之意。例如:
  Tom ought not to ________ me your secret, but he meant no harm.
  A. have told B. tell
  C. be telling D. having told
  答案:A
  2.3 subject +needn’t +have +past participle+...该句型表达做了过去不必要做或者不需要做的事情,常常译为“本来必”、“本来不需要”等含义。例如:
  There was plenty of time;she _______.
  A. mustn’t have hurried
  B. couldn’t have hurried
  C. must not hurry
  D. needn’t have hurried
  答案:D
  3. 在虚拟语气中对既成事实相反句型的分析
  subject +could +have +past participle+...该句型不再表示推测,而是用来表示与既成事实相反,多用于虚拟语气中,常译为“本能够”、“本可以”。例如:
  —We could have walked to the hotel. It was so near.
  —Yes. A taxi wasn’t at all necessary.
  以上是对中的“情态动词+不定式完成体”结构分析的几种不同情况,在英语学习中要多加重视,不断强化,才能对这部分的内容有更好的理解和提升。