您现在的位置: 主页 > 英语教学 > 中学英语 > > 正文

中学英语语法:介词

作者:admin    文章来源:盐田区外国语学校    更新时间:2017-12-23
七、几个易混介词的用法辨析
  1.between, among
  这两个介词都可以解作“在……之间”。 between常用于两者之间,among一般指在三者或三者以上之间。例如:
  He is sitting between Tom and John.
  他坐在汤姆和约翰之间。
  He is sitting among the comrades.
  他坐在同志们中间。
  如果指三个以上人或物中的每两个之间时,仍然要用between。例如:
  Switzerland lies between France, Italy, Austria and Germany.瑞士位于法国、意大利、奥地利和德国之间。
  2. besides. except(=but)
  besides与except都可解作“除……之外”,但含义不同。
  besides表示“除……以外,还有”,指“在整体中加入一部分”,含义是肯定的。例如:
  There are many rivers in China besides the Changjiang and Huanghe.中国除了长江、黄河之外,还有许多河流。
  He has other people to take care of besides me.
  除了我之外,还有人需要他照顾。
  besides还可以用作副词,意为“除此之外”, “此外”,“而且”。例如:
  Besides, I enjoy learning about new things from politics to sports and music.此外,我还喜欢了解从政治到体育、音乐的新动态。
  except(=but)表示“从整体中除去一部分”,含义是否定的。试比较:
  We all went besides him.除他之外,我们大家也都去了。(他去了)
  We all went except him.除他之外,我们都去了。(他没有去)
  3.like,as
  as与like都可以表示“像……”。
  as是连词,引导比较状语从句,从句中的动词或整个谓语部分往往可省略。例如:
  She runs as fast as he (runs).
  她跑得和他一样快。
  This book is as interesting as that one (is).
  这本书和那本书一样有趣。
  as还可以引导方式状语从句。例如:
  I work as others do.我像别人一样地工作。
  like用作介词,后面接名词或宾格代词。例如:
  The building looks like a hospital.
  这幢大楼看上去像一所医院。
  He is just like everybody else.
  他跟别人完全一样。
  as也可以用作介词,但与like的意思不同。试比较:
  Let me speak to you as a father.
  我作为一个父亲在同你说话。
  Let me speak to you like a father.
  让我像一位父亲那样同你讲话。
  4. instead,instead of
  instead与instead of的词性与用法都不相同。
  instead是副词,意为“代替”,“顶替”,在句子中作状语。例如:
  Give me this instead. 换这个给我吧。
  instead of主要有两个意思:
  (1)“代替”,后面接名词或代词。例如:
  He will go instead of me.他将代替我去。
  (2)“而不”,后面接动词-ing形式。例如:
  She went to school instead of staying at home.
  她没有呆在家里而是上学去了。
  instead of有时可用来连接两个对等的语法成分,也就是说,它后面可以接形容词、副词或介词短语等。例如:
  They went there on foot instead of by bus.
  他们没有乘公共汽车而是步行到那里去的。
  
  八、初中课本中常见介词短语分类列举
  1.表示时间的介词及介词短语
  in, at, on, before, after, till, since, for, from... to, until, by, in the middle of, at the beginning of, at the end of, at halfpast five, at night, in a week, in the morning, in class, at sunrise, in spring/summer/autumn/winter, on Sunday, on Saturday afternoon, on a winter evening, for a long time, for two months, after school, since liberation, before lunch, at the time of, at the age of。
  2.表示地点的介词及介词短语
  in, at, into, to, on, beside, before, behind, above, under, outside, inside, up, from, far from, near, across, off, down, among, past, between, out of, around, in the front of, in the middle of, at the back of, at the foot of, at home, at the gate, at the table, in the sky, on the ground, in a tree, in the south, in the sun, in the bed, on one's way home, by the side of。
  3.介词和各类词搭配构成的介词短语
  1)介词与动词搭配
  arrive in/at到达ask for 要,请求
  do well in 在……方面做得好
  give in投降 go on继续
  hear from 收到……来信
  hear of听说
  help sb. with sth.帮助……做
  laugh at嘲笑
  learn from向……学习
  leave for离开一地去另一地
  talk to与……谈话
  go in for从事,致力于
  put up穿上,挂上take down拿下,取了

look at(有意识地)看 speak to对某人说
  send for派人去请
  shout at大声叫喊,吼叫
  take away拿走,带走
  think of考虑,关心
  turn...into把……变成
  wait for等候,等待
  take off脱下,起飞
  turn on/off打开(关上)
  listen to听look after照顾,照看
   look for寻找 look like看上去像
  get to到达point to指着……
  fill with充满,装满
  begin with以……开始
  deal/do with处置,对待
  meet with偶尔遇见,遭遇
  pass on传递belong to属于
  write to写信给……
  call on号召,访问,邀请
  die of死于……
  depend on依靠,依赖
  smile at向……微笑believe in信任
  look out向四下看,到处看
  2)介词与名词搭配
  in time及时in bed卧床
  in life一生中 on time准时,按时
  in front of在……前面 on foot步行
  by bus乘公共汽车at home在家
  in English用in the middle在中间
  at night在晚上at noon在中午
  at hospital在医院
  with a smile带着微笑
  of course当然(可以)
  in a hurry匆忙,急忙
  in a minute一会儿
  by the way顺便说说/问问
  at first首先,起初at last最后,终于
  at the meeting在会上at least至少
  on one's way to在……的路上
  in the sun在阳光下 in a tree在树上
  in surprise惊奇地 at once立刻,马上
  at the foot of在……脚下
  at all压根儿at dinner在吃正餐
   at the table在桌子旁
  at work在工作at school在学校
  at the back of在……后面
  at the beginning of在……开始
  at the end of在……结尾
  at the same time 同时,然而
  by hand用手,手工,亲手
  by the end of到……结束时
  by train乘火车 day by day日复一日
  one by one一个接一个
  by spaceship乘坐宇宙飞船
  in a low voice小声地
  in a word总而言之,一句话
  in trouble处于困境 in fact事实上
  in the street在街上
  in the end最后,终于
  in space在空间in no time立刻,很快
  in order按顺序,整齐,正常
  in order to为了,以便in the day在白天
  in line成一直线in a short while不久
  in all总共,总计in town在城里
  in silence不作声
  out of breath上气不接下气
  out of sight 消失,看不见
  on duty值日
  on the left/right在左/右边
  on the one hand...on the other hand
  一方面……另一方面
  on the other side of在……的另一边
  on top of在……顶上
  in the distance在远处
  in public当众,公开地
  out of work失业
  on the radio通过无线电广播
  to this day直到今天
  to one's surprise/joy
  使某人吃惊/高兴的是
  3)介词与形容词、过去分词和动词等搭配
  be born in出生于……
  be good at擅长……
  be made of由……制成
  be angry with sb.对某人生气
  be angry at sth.为某事生气
  be pleased with sb.对某人感到满意
  be satisfied with sth.对某事感到满意
  be surprised at 对……感到惊奇/诧异
  be tired of讨厌/厌倦……
  be interested in对……感兴趣
  be proud of以……为自豪/骄傲
  be full of充满……
  take/catch hold of抓住
  be sure of确信……
  take part in参加
  break into闯入
  take care of照顾,关心,保管
  be busy with忙于……
  be strict with对……严格要求
  catch up with 跟上,赶上
  have nothing to do with与……无关
  go to school上学
  go to bed/sleep睡觉
  give a lesson to 给……上课
  go to the cinema去看电影
  be kind to sb.对某人友好
  say hello to向……问好
  look forward to盼望,期待
  keep out of不让进人
  go on strike罢工
  be used to习惯于……
  4.看似相同,但意义有别的词组
  英语中有一些介词词组和动词词组,它们从形式上看似乎基本相同,但在意义上却截然不同。要是我们在记忆上对这类词组不加以重视,使用时就很容易望文生义,甚至张冠李戴。为此,把这类词组归纳如下。
1)介词词组
  (1)at table在进餐
  at the table在桌子旁(=beside the desk)
  (2)at desk在读书或做作业
  at the desk在书桌旁
  (3)at school在校上学(指学生)
  at the school在学校(指教职工)
  (4)in front of the bus
  在公共汽车的前面(不在车上)
  in the front of the bus
  在公共汽车的前部(在车上)
  (5)at sea在航海中
  at the sea在海边
  (6)by day白天
  by the day按日,论日
  (7)behind time误期
  behind the time落后于时代
  (8)in class在上课,在课内
  in the class在这个班
  (9)in bed卧床,在睡觉
  in the bed在床上
  (10)in prison坐牢
  in the prison在监狱
  (11)in red穿着红色的衣服
  in the red负债,亏损
  (12)in hospital住院(指病人)
  in the hospital(因事)在医院
  (13)in office在办公,执政
  in the office在办公室
  (14)in secret秘密,私下
  in the secret参入秘密,参入阴谋
  (15)in place of代替,而不是
  in the place of在……地方
  (16)in case of万一,如果
  in the case of就……来说,至于
  (17)of age成年人
  of an age同龄人
  (18)out of office离职
  out of the office离开办公室
  (19)out of prison(因犯罪)出狱
  out of the prison(因事)从监狱出来
  (20)out of question毫无疑问
  out of the question不可能,办不到
  2)含有介词的动词词组
  (1)come out of hospital(病好)出院
  come out of the hospital(因事)从医院里出来
  (2)come out of prison(刑满)释放
  come out of the prison(因事)从监狱里出来
  (3)go to school去上学
  go to the school(因事)去学校
  (4)go to college上大学
  go to the/a college去一所学校(办事)
  (5)go to bed上床睡觉
  go to the bed去床边
  (6)go to hospital去住院
  go to the hospital(因事)去医院
  (7)go to prison去坐牢
  go to the prison(因事)去监狱
  (8)go to sea当海员
  go to the sea去海边
  (9)go to court起诉
  go to the court(因事)去法庭
  (10)go to church做礼拜
  go to the church(因事)去教堂
  (11)keep house管理家务
  keep the house守在家里
  (12)take place发生
  take the place代替
  3)有无冠词,意义无多大区别的介词词组
  (1)at (the) most至多
  (2)at (the) first起初
  (3)all (the) day整天
  (4)catch (a) cold感冒
  (5)in (the) future将来
  (6)in (the) memory of纪念
  (7)go to (the) office上班,去办公室
  (8) go to (the) market 赶集,去市场
  (9) on (a) holiday 在度假
  (10) (the) day before yesterday 前天
  (11) (the) most of 大多数
  (12) with (a) smiling face 面带微笑