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中考英语被动语态考点

作者:admin    文章来源:盐田区外国语学校    更新时间:2017-12-29

  一、考查动语态的概念和构成
  
  解答动语态题目时,首先要判断主语和动作的关系。如果主语是动作的执行者,就用主动语态;如果主语是动作的承受者,就用被动语态。
  被动语态的基本结构为:助动词be+动词的过去分词。助动词be有人称、时态和数的变化,其变化规则与连系动词be完全一样。例如:
  Chinese ______(speak) by more and more people in the world.
  【解析】句意为:世界上越来越多的人说。主语Chinese与动词speak之间为被动关系,句子的主语是动作的承受者,应使用动词的被动语态is spoken.
  
  二、考查各种时态的被动语态
  
  被动语态试题对时态考查的热点主要集中在一般现在时、一般过去时、一般将来时、现在完成时及现在进行时上。
  1)一般现在时
  一般现在时的被动语态表示经常性、习惯性的被动动作,其基本结构为:am/is/are +done(动词的过去分词)。常用now, today, every day, often, usually, always, seldom, never等做时态标志词。例如:
  Hong Kong ______ to be a good place for eating today. (2010年河北卷)
  A. knows B. knew
  C. is known D. was known
  【解析】题意为:众所周知,如今香港是个吃美食的好地方。由today(如今)以及主语Hong Kong和动词know之间的被动关系可知,要用一般现在时的被动语态,选C。
  If the question ______ incorrectly,______ question will be given to you. (2009年安顺卷)
  A. is answered; other B. answers; other
  C. is answered; another D. answer; another
  【解析】if引导的条件状语从句,主句为将来时,从句要用一般现在时;主语question与动词answer之间为被动关系,应用被动语态,排除B和D;另外,表示泛指的“又一个,另一个”要用another,选C。
  2)一般过去时
  一般过去时的被动语态表示过去某一时刻的被动性动作,其基本结构为:was/were+done。常用yesterday, last year(month, week, ...), ten years ago等过去时间状语做时态标志词。例如:
  Last month a new law ______ in China to stop people from smoking in public places. (2010年盐城卷)
  A. is passed B. passes
  C. had passed D. was passed
  【解析】主语a new law与动词pass之间为被动关系,而且动作发生在last month,所以要用一般过去时的被动语态,答案为D。
  —Look,what an old palace! It looks so great!
  —Yeah,it ______ nearly 800 years ago. (2010年通化卷)
  A. was building B. was built
  C. has built D. is built
  【解析】主语it(代指an old palace)与动词build之间是被动关系,根据句意提示“它是差不多800年前被建造起来的”,要用一般过去时的被动语态,答案为B。
  3)一般将来时
  一般将来时的被动语态表示将来某一时刻的被动性动作,常用表示将来的tomorrow, next year(month, week, ...), in a few year’s time等时间状语做时态标志词,其基本结构为:shall/will be+done。例如:
  Another new railway station ______ in Changsha in 2011. (2010年长沙卷)
  A. was built B. buildC. will be built
  【解析】in 2011是表示将来的时间状语,主语railway station 与动词build之间为被动关系,应用一般将来时的被动语态,选C。
  Tomorrow there’s a programme about our school on TV,then it ______ by millions of people. (2010年沈阳卷)
  A. will see B. saw
  C. will be seen D. was seen
  【解析】主语it(代指a programme)与动词see之间为被动关系,时间状语为tomorrow, 选C。
  4)现在完成时
  现在完成时的被动语态表示到目前为止已经完成的某个被动性动作,其基本结构为:have/has been+done。句中常出现already, up to now,since+时间点等时态标志词。例如:
  —Can you sing this English song?
  —Of course, I can. It ______ many times on the radio. (2010年南京卷)
  A. taught B. has taught
  C. is taught D. has been taught
  【解析】主语it(代指this English song)与动词teach之间为被动关系,要用被动语态。再由many times可知应用现在完成时,表示“这首歌已经教了很多遍”,选D。
  5)现在进行时
  现在进行时的被动语态表示目前正在被进行的动作,其基本结构为:is/am/are+being+done。常用now, atpresent, at the moment等时态标志词。例如:
  The World Expo (世博会)______ in Shanghai now. (2010年滨州卷)
  A. being had B. is having
  C. is holding D. is being held
  【解析】句意为:世博会正在上海举行。由时间状语now以及主语the World Expo与动词hold之间为被动关系可知,要用现在进行时的被动语态,选D。
  三、考查情态动词的被动语态
  含情态动词的被动语态常表示具有特定感情色彩的被动性动作,其基本结构为:情态动词(can, may, must, should等)+be+done。
  —It’s difficult for the village children to cross the river for school.
 —I think a bridge ______ over the river.(2010年眉山卷)
  A. should be built B. is being built
  C. has been built D. was built
  【解析】句意为:对村里的孩子们来说,要穿越那条河来上学是困难的。我认为应该要在河上建造一座桥。主语bridge与动词build之间为被动关系,应用含情态动词should的被动语态,答案为A。

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