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2015考研英语二答案

作者:admin    文章来源:盐田区外国语学校    更新时间:2018-03-16

2015考研答案-2015考研英语二答案

Section I Use of English/考研英语二答案

1、【答案】[C] signal

【解析】此题所在的上下文内容的意思是:陌生人之间没有交流,大家都只关注自己的手机,甚至不_______。A项“票”,B项“允许”,C项“信号,打招呼”,D项“记录”;选项中,只有C项符合上下文语义,因此signal正确。

2、【答案】[D] much

【解析】第二个空格所在句子的语义内容是:我们避免和其他人交流是件很悲哀的是,原因在与和陌生人交流,我们会收获_______。根据句子内容,显然是指和陌生人交流,我们会从中收获很多东西。A.B.C.三个选项均不符合句意。因此答案选much.

3、【答案】[C] plugged

【解析】该题所在语境的意思是:不知道和陌生人交流,我们会从中收获很多东西吗,原因在于____我们的手机。A.打;B.引导;C.插入,投入;D.带来;四个选项分别带入句中,可以判断出plugged符合句意。

4、【答案】[A] message

【解析】该题所在句子的意思是:这种普遍存在的盔甲(不和陌生人交流)传递了“不要靠近我”这个________。显然这里考察了动宾搭配的考点,而且空格处的内容是说“不要靠近我”。所以,根据send这个动词和空格处后面的内容可以判断出,答案为message。其他选项均不符合前后语义。

5、【答案】[C] behind

【解析】该所要表达的意思是:…藏在我们屏幕的_______位置。A.下面;B.之外; C.后面;D. 来自;四个选项分别带入原句,只有behind符合句意。

6、【答案】[D] misinterpreted

【解析】空的语境为:我们害怕被拒绝,也害怕我们善意的社交之举被____成“怪异的”,只有答案D符合上下文语义。

7、【答案】[D] delayed

【解析】空格所在句与前后句同为we fear…的并列句,故句意应前后保持一致。前一句说“我们害怕被拒绝,被误解”,后一句说“我们害怕被打扰”,A选项带入语义不通,B,C选项不符合该文语境,D选项带入文中“我们害怕被耽搁时间”,符合上下文语义,故答案为D。

8、【答案】[D] unfamiliar

【解析】空格处需填入一个形容词修饰strangers(陌生人),所以该词应符合陌生人的身份与特点,既是陌生人,肯定是“不熟悉的”,故答案为D。

9、【答案】[C] anxious

【解析】空所在语境为“因为陌生人固有的陌生感,所以当与朋友和熟人相比,在沟通时,我们很容易感到_____。”填入的词应满足前后句的因果逻辑关系,不难判断空格处应填入一个消极的词汇,故首先排除A和B选项,D选项“生气的”和C选项“紧张的,焦虑的”,根据常识,D选项更符合陌生人所带来的感觉,故答案为C。

10、【答案】[D] turn (to)

【解析】空格要求填入一个动词,首先需与介词to构成搭配,其次需满足 “为了避免这种不自在,我们____我们的手机。”的语义,D选项turn to表示转向求助于某物某事,符合上下文语义,故答案为D。

11、【答案】[A] dang erous

【解析】根据此处结构protect us from what we perceive is going to be more _______(保护我们以防我们观察的东西更加_______),可推断空处填入词汇为负向感情色彩,A选项dangerous(危险的)意思吻合,且和前文uneasiness(不安);security(安全)形成呼应;B选项mysterious(神秘的)与主题关联不大,且为中性词;C选项violent(暴力的)意思比较极端,且不合题意;D选项boring(无聊的)同样不吻合该段主题。故答案为A选项dangerous。

12、【答案】[A] hurt

【解析】该句意思为:当我们撕掉创可贴,把智能手机揣到口袋里,并且抬头行走,并没有_______那么糟糕。A选项hurt(伤害)、B选项resist(抵抗)、C选项bend(弯曲)、D选项decay(衰退),其中hurt符合题意,it doesn’t hurt so bad(没那么令人难受)。因此答案为A选项hurt。

13、【答案】[B] conversation

【解析】由上文推断此处为研究者进行的一项实验内容,根据该句后面一句中talk to可知,实验是让研究对象进行交谈,可锁定B选项conversation(对话),与talk to对应。A选项lecture(讲座)、C选项debate(讨论)、D选项negotiation(谈判)均不吻合题意,故答案为B选项conversation。

14、【答案】[D] passengers

【解析】该句意思为:他们让芝加哥火车上的通勤者和他们的_______交谈。根据commuter(通勤者)一词可找到与之对应的A选项passengers(乘客),B选项employees(雇员)、C选项researchers(研究者)、D选项trainees(受训者)都不正确。故答案为A选项passengers。

15、【答案】[C] predict

【解析】该句意思为:“当两位博士让火车站的其他人_______和其他陌生人交谈会有什么感觉,乘客们认为……”。A选项reveal(揭露;曝光),多接负面现象,此处不搭配;B选项choose(选择)不合题意;C选项predict(预测)代入文中翻译通顺,文法符合;D选项design(设计)不合题意。故答案为C选项predict。

16、【答案】[B] ride

【解析】此处需要填入一个与commuters“上下班往返的人”相关的词。因此排除A选项voyage“旅途”和D选项flight“航班”。上文提到了“the same train station”, 因此排除C选项walk“步行”,选项B为正确答案。

17、【答案】[A] went through

【解析】此处考察固定词组。 A选项go through with意为“完成”,B选项“do away with”意为“废除,消灭”,C选项“catch up with”意为“跟上,赶上”,D选项put up with 意为“忍受”,因此符合文意,能够和实验搭配的只能是选项A。

18、【答案】[B] In fact

【解析】此处需要填入一个固定词组,起到承接上下文的作用。上文提到那些放下手机,积极与乘客交流的人并没有受到冷落。空格后指出,与那些没有对话的人相比,这些人更加的开心。可见上下文之间是并列或递进的关系。A 选项In turn意为“轮流,以此”,不符合上下文关系,C选项In particular“尤其是,特别是”常常用来表示举例的逻辑关系,因此排除。D选项In consequence“结果”,表示因果的逻辑关系,因此排除。所以正确答案为B选项in fact“事实上”。

19、【答案】[B] since

【解析】此处考察上下文的逻辑关系。上文指出,与那些没有对话的人相比,那些积极交谈的人更加开心。下文则提到人类的繁荣起源于社会联系。显然,这二者之间不是假设关系,因此排除A选项unless和C选项if,也非转折关系,因此排除D选项whereas,正确答案为B选项since,表因果关系。

20、【答案】[C] simple

【解析】此处需要填入一个可以形容冒号后句子的形容词。与陌生人交谈让你觉得不孤单。显然这一事实,绝非funny“滑稽的”, logical “有条理的”,也非rare“稀有的”。 C选项“简单的”符合文意,是正确答案。

Section II Reading Comprehension

Part A

Text 1

21、【答案】[A] offered greater relaxation than the workplace

【解析】事实细节题。该题干问:之前的研究认为家是……。根据题干,该题答案定位在首段首句。首句大致意思为“一项新的研究表明,与绝大部分研究相反,实际上,人们在家里的压力要大于工作。”由此可知,以往的研究正好跟最新研究相反,即人们在家里的压力小于工作。纵观各选项,选项A意为:与工作场所相比,能提供更多的休闲;与文章表述一致,为正确答案。

22、【答案】[C ] childless husbands

【解析】事实细节题。文章第二段第三句和第四句提到“It is men not women, who report being happier at home than at work…, but more so for nonparents.”即“研究发现是男人,而不是女人,在家比在工作中更高兴。更令人吃惊的是,研究发现,这种情况对于有孩子和没有孩子都是这样,尤其是对于没有孩子的。”所以综合对比后,选择C。

23、【答案】[D] they are both bread winners and housewives

【解析】推理判断题。文章第三段中提到“For many men, the end of the workday is …, with the blurring of role……”. 意思是“对于男人来说,一天的工作结束后,是他们休息的时候,但是对于女人来说,离开办公室之后,还有很多的家务活”。由此可以推出,“The blurring of working women’s roles” 指的是“既要在职场打拼也要做很多家务的女性”。所以综合判定后确定D为正确答案。

24、【答案】[C] earnings

【解析】词义句意题。文章第四段第一句提出“在工作中,大家都知道挣钱,他们做工作就是为了家庭收入”。紧接着第二句给出“这些雇员付出体力和脑力的劳动,就是为了得到能够维持他们生活的必须收入”。结合上下文,moola应该对应原文中的“income”,表示他们挣得的收入。故C正确。

25、【答案】[A] division of labor at home is seldom clear-cut

【解析】事实细节题。根据题干关键词“The home front”可以回文定位在原文最后一段。最后一段第一句指出“然而,人们对于大后方(家庭)就没有那么清楚了”,接下来的一句进一步指出“Rare is the household in which the division of labor is so clinically…”(家务活的分工很少清清楚楚),A项中的“seldom”同意置换原文中的“Rare”, “clear-cut”同意置换原文的“clinically”,故A项正确。

Text 2

26、【答案】[D] missed its original purpose

【解析】根据题干关键词recruiting more first-generation students回文定位到第一段的第四句,然后一一比对选项,“rather than close an achievement gap based on social class”排除选项B,选项A和C是无关选项,由第四句话中This has created “a paradox” in that recruiting first-generation students…与选项D “missed its original purpose”是同义替换,paradox的意思是“自相矛盾,似是而非的观点”,所以正确答案为D。

27、【答案】[C] the problem is solvable

【解析】根据题干信息“research article are optimistic because……”可以回文定位到文章第二段第一句“But the article is actually quite optimistic, as it outlines a potential solution to this problem”。As引导的原因状语从句是题干答案,跟C选“the problem is solvable”重合,因此选C。

28、【答案】[C] are in need of financial support

【解析】根据题干信息most first-generation students...定位第三段最后一句中,“most of first-generation students were recipients of Pell Grants(佩尔奖学金),a federal grant for undergraduates with financial need",可知答案为C,其中in need of和with...need对应,financial support 和financial相对应。

29、【答案】[D] are inexperienced in handling their issues at college

【解析】根据题干关键词the author of the paper回文定位到文章第四段第一句“their thesis ...that face most college students”。这句话中明确说到第一代学生缺乏处理一些问题的实际经验,与选项D语义相符,其中are inexperienced与原文的lacking in practical knowledge对应,handling their issues与how to deal with the issues对应,at college与that face most college students对应。

30、【答案】[B] colleges are partly responsible for the problem in question

【解析】根据题干关键词infer from the last paragraph回文定位到文章最后一段,这是一个段落推理题,可以通过寻找段落中心的方式来解。最后一段第一句和第二句是并列关系,均提出第一代学生中存在的与社会阶层有关的问题。第三句以一个because所引导的原因状语从句点明中心,明确该问题的来源是美国高校未承认社会阶层对学生教育经历的影响,因此总结出来可知,选项B正确,说明出现了相应问题,高校应该担负一部分责任。

Text 3

31、【答案】[A]more emotional

【解析】细节题。题干中的office language对应文章中的lingua franca of corporate(公司通用语),题干中的has become对应文章中的has gotten,所以答案对应文章中的more emotional and much more right-brained。所以答案A more emotional。本题的易错答案是 more objective。文章中的objectives是名词“目标,话题”的意思。

32、【答案】[C] sports culture

【解析】细节题。本题的答案可以从第二段的第二句到第四句中得出。这几句话都是在举例子,作为论据出现来论证第一句话。第二句话中出现了sports,第三句话中出现了coach和team,第四句话中出现了coach和team,win,所有的这些词都与运动相关,所以答案选C sports culture。

33、【答案】[D] strengthen employee loyalty

【解析】细节题。本题题干中还出现了believe这一观点动词,根据题干中的importation of terminology可以定位到第三段的第二句话,但是这句话属于论据,其论点是第一句话。本句中出现are intended to表示目的,对应题干中的aims to,句子出现了increase allegiance to the firm,对应D strengthen employee loyalty,表示“加强员工的忠诚度”。

34、【答案】[A] voices for working women

【解析】推理题。根据题干中的Lean In可以定位到第四段的第二句话。这句话中出现了1990s和“mommy wars”也是明显的论据,所以推理的核心论点是前面的第一句话。第一句话中出现了work-life balance,第二句话中出现了mommy wars,结合二者可以推理出这句话谈论的是工作中对于女性的不公平。所以答案选voices for working women(为职业女性申辩)。

35、【答案】[D] regular people mock it but accept it

【解析】细节题。根据题干的关键词可以定位到最后一段的第一句话。要注意这句话的结构。本句是一个转折句,尽管大家取笑office speak,但是…。转折之后表示的是人们对它的认可,A Managers …avoid it态度与文章不符。B中的linguists 在文章中没有提到。C中的Companies find it to fundamental,属于推理过度,文章说的是depend on,依靠并不说明fundamental根本的。

Text 4

36、【答案】[B] the increase of part-time jobs

【解析】本题为细节题。根据关键词“job pictures, neglected”可以回文定位到第二段第一句话“the jobs picture ...was largely overlooked”,其中neglected是overlooked的同义替换。并且此句有明显的命题点“however”。第二句具体指出被忽略的部分是“there was a big jump in the number of people who report voluntarily working part-time.”,即有大量的人自愿从事兼职工作。故正确答案为B。其中increase是原文jump的同义替换,voluntary part-time jobs是voluntarily working part-time的同义转述。

37、【答案】[C] cannot get their hands on full-time jobs

【解析】根据题干中的关键词“many people work part-time”可以定位到第二段第五句话“many people who work part-time jobs actually want full-time jobs”。由此句可知,那些从事兼职工作的人实际想拥有全日制工作。接着第六句明确指出他们从事兼职工作的原因:they take part-time because this is all they can get。言外之意是说,人们目前只能得到兼职工作,而无法获得全职工作。故正确答案为C。

38、【答案】[B] shows a general tendency of decline

【解析】通过题干中的involuntary part-time employment可以将该题定位在文章第二段。该段倒数第二句表明“这种非自愿参加兼职工作在六月份是呈现增长的,但是总趋势是下降的”。故B选项(呈现出一种普遍下降的趋势)正确。

39、【答案】[B] employment is no longer a precondition to get insurance

【解析】通过题干中with Obamacare可以将该题定位在全文最后一句。该句表明,就业和保险之间不再有关联。而从上一句可以看出,之前很多人想要找一份提供保险的全职工作来养活自己和家人。可见,之前,就业就意味着能得到保险。而它们之间的关系不复存在,即雇佣不再是得到保险的前提条件。可见,B选项正确。

40、【答案】[A] employment in the US

【解析】该题考察的是文章主旨大意。文章首段指出目前的失业率呈现出下降的趋势,而接下来的第二段提出在这种失业率下降的好现象中,我们忽略了那些自愿(voluntary)参加兼职工作的人。第三段就自愿兼职工作者和非自愿兼职工作者的区别展开描述。最后两段表明,那些自愿参加兼职工作的人是因为有了一项名为Obamacare的政策,该政策旨在使那些没有全职工作的人也有可能获得保险,从而提升就业率。可见,全文都是围绕美国的就业形势展开讨论。故A选项正确。

Part B

41、【答案】[D] Most of your fears are unreal

【解析】本段中出现了多次词义复现,如Fear is not real以及fears are just the product of our luxuriant imagination(恐惧只是丰富想象的产物)。Unfortunately转折后作者通过引用Will Smith的话以及自己的总结强调揭示了段落主题。

42、【答案】[E] Think about the present moment

【解析】该题所在段落平铺直叙,因此第一句话为段落中心句,其中关键信息是focus on the present moment,与选项E主题词复现。下文中又多次复现了主题词,如value the present moment,moment以及present。

43、【答案】[G] There are many things to be grateful for

【解析】该题的解题线索是主题词复现。段落中的appreciate,smile,value与grateful属于近义复现,cry和complain与grateful是反义复现。

44、【答案】[A] You are not alone

【解析】段落首句出现了表达强烈语气的情态动词should,因此主题句为首句,关键信息为you are not alone,与A选项匹配。

45、【答案】[C] Pave your own unique path

【解析】该段落主题句为“When you…you should believe in yourself and be sure that your decision is the best.”作者正面提出了自己的观点“相信自己以及自己的决定是最佳的”。下文进一步阐释,其中own thoughts, own values 以及own choices构成了标题中的own unique path。

Section III Translation

46、【参考译文】

想象行驶在一条非常熟悉的路线上。它可能是你通勤上班的路,可能是你赴城或回家的路。不管是哪条路线,你熟知每个转弯,就像熟知你的手背。在这样的旅程中,很容易忽视实际的行驶过程,不关注路过的风景。结果,你感觉行驶的时间比实际的时间要少。

这是熟悉路线效应:人们常常低估行驶熟悉路线所用的时间。

这种效应是由我们分配注意力的方式引起的。当我们行驶在熟悉的线路中,因为我们不必聚精会神,时间似乎流逝得更快些。之后,当我们回想起这段旅程,我们不能清楚地忆起它,因为我们并未留意过它。因此,我们认为这段旅程的时间相对较短。

Section IV Writing

47、

【参考范文】

NOTICE

June 8, 2014

Since our university is going to organize a camp for high school students during this summer vocation, the Postgraduate Association is now recruiting volunteers to make the camp a complete success.

As a cultural exchange program, this camp starting from July 17 to August 17 aims to promote the understanding of American culture among high school students. Students will visit a high school in Texas and exchange ideas with students there. After that, they will have a tour to major American universities and famous tourist spots. Those who would like to volunteer for this activity must possess fluent communication skills in English. All the transportation and accommodation expenses are covered.

Anyone who is interested in international communication is encouraged to apply. The applicants may download the application form from the university website and send the form to .

Postgraduates’ Association

48、

【参考范文】

Emerging from the pie char given above is the proportions of residents’ different consumptions during Spring Festival in a Chinese city. To be specific, the percentage of consumption taken by New Year’s present accounts for 40%, ranking first. Meanwhile, that of gatherings and traffic ranks second, making up 20% respectively.

The bar chart reveals the fact that money spent on New Year’s present occupies the largest percentage of the consumption. What exactly contributes to this phenomenon? Reasons can be listed as follows: To begin with, it is universally acknowledged that China is renowned for valuing politeness and ceremonies ever since ancient times. Therefore sending New Year’s present mutually is a symbol of inheriting Chinese civilization and virtue, especially during the traditional festivals. In addition, with the improvement of financial status and corresponding purchasing power, people in mounting numbers can afford the once-deemed-expensive gifts to convey their warmest wishes and sincerest greetings.

By observing the different proportion of the pie chart, we may forecast that this situation will continue in the near future, which is beneficial to promote interpersonal communication and the social harmony as well and should be further encouraged.

 

Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension

Part A

Directions:Read the following four texts. Answer the questions after each text by choosing A, B, C or

D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)

Text 1

King Juan Carlos of Spain once insisted kings don’t abdicate, they die in their sleep. But embarrassing

scandals and the popularity of the republican left in the recent Euro-elections have forced him to eat

his words and stand down. So, dies the Spanish crisis suggest that monarchy is seeing its last days?

Does that mean the uniting is on the wall for all European royals, with their magnificent uniforms and

majestic lifestyles?

The Spanish case previous arguments both for and against monarchy when public opinion is particularly.

Polarized, as it was following the end of the France regime, monarchs can rise above “mere” politics

and “embody” a spirit of national unity。

It is this apparent transcendence of politics that explains monarchs continuing popularity as heads of

states. And so, the Middle East expected, Europe is the most monarch-infested region is the world, with

10 kingdoms not counting Vatican city and Andorra. But unlike their absolutist counterparts in the Gulf

and Asia, most royal families have survived because they allow voters to avoid the difficult search for

a non-controversial but respect public figure。

Even so, kings and queens undoubtedly have a downside, symbolic of national unity as they claim to be,

their very history—and sometimes the way they behave today-embodies outdated and indefensible

privileges and inequalities. At a time when Thomes Piketty and other ecumenists are warning of rising

inequality and the increasing power of inherited wealth, it is bizarre that wealthy aristocratic

families should still be the symbolic heart of modern democratic families should still be the symbolic

heart of modern democratic states. The most successful monarchies strive to abandon or hide their old

aristocratic ways. Prince and princess have day-jobs and ride bicycles, not horses (or helicopters).

Even so, these are wealthy families who party with the international 1%, and media intrusiveness makes

it increasingly difficult to maintain the right image。

While Europe’s monarchies will no doubt be smart enough to strive for some time to come, it is the

British royals who have most to fear from the Spanish example。

It is only the Queen who has preserved the monarchy reputation with her rather ordinary (if well-healed)

granny style. The danger will come with Charles, who has both an expensive taste of lifestyle and a

pretty hierarchical view of the world. He has failed to understand that monarchies have largely survived

because they provide a service—as non-controversial and non-political heads of state. Charles ought to

know that as English history shows, it is kings of republicans, who are the monarchy’s worst enemies。

21、according to the first two paragraphs, king Juan Carl of span

[A] used to enjoy high public support

[B] was unpopular among European royals

[C] ended his reign in embarrassment

[D] eased his relationship with his rivals

22、monarchs are kept as head of state in Europe mostly

[A] owing to their undoubted and respectable status

[B] to achieve a balance between tradition and reality

[C] to give voters more public figures to look up to

[D] due to their everlasting political embodiment

23. Which of the following is shown to be odd, according to Paragraph 4?

[A] Aristocrats’ excessive reliance on inherited wealth。

[B] The simple lifestyle of the aristocratic families。

[C] The role of the nobility in modern democracies。

[D] The nobility’s adherence to their privileges。

24. The British royals “have most to fear” because Charles

[A] takes a tough line on political issues。

[B] fails to change his lifestyle as advised。

[C] takes republicans as his potential allies。

[D] fails to adapt himself to his future role。

25. Which of the following is the best title of the text?

[A] Carlos, Glory and Disgrace Combined

[B] Carlos, a Lesson for All European Monarchs

[C] Charles, Slow to React to the Coming Threats

[D] Charles, Anxious to Succeed to the Throne

解析:

21 D ended his reign in embarrassment

此题属于细节题。

根据关键词King Juan Carlos of Spain 定位到第一段第一和第二句。But embarrassing scandals…have forced him

to eat his words and stand down. 此处stand down译为放弃席位。因此D ended his reign in embarrassment是原

文内容的同义替换。

22 A owing to their undoubted and respectable status

此题属于细节题。

根据关键词定位到第三段第一句it is this apparent …that explains …as heads of state。和第三句But unlike

their absolutist…most royal families have survived because they allow voters to avoid the difficult

search for ...respected public figure. 绝大多数皇室家族使得选民避免了寻找受人尊敬的公众人物的麻烦。因此A

owing to their undoubted and respectable status是原文内容的同义替换。

23 B the role of the nobility in modern democracies

此题属于细节题。

根据关键词定位到第四段最后一句话…it is bizarre that wealthy aristocratic families should still be the

symbolic heart of modern democratic states 奇怪的是有钱的贵族家庭仍然处于现代民主国家的核心地位。因此B

the role of the nobility in modern democracies是原文内容的同义替换。

24 B fails to change his lifestyle as advised

此题属于细节题。

根据关键词”have most of fear”定位到第六段,Charles定位到最后一段的地二句Charles 后面who引导定语从句who

has both an expensive taste of lifestyle and …world因此B fails to change his lifestyle as advised是原文

内容的同义替换。

25 C Carlos,a Lesson for All European Monarchs

此题属于全文主旨题。

着眼全文,通篇都在围绕monarchs展开。第一段由Carlos引出当今君主制面临的危机。因此Carlos,a Lesson for All

European Monarchs是全文内容的精确概括。

Text 2

Just how much does the Constitution protect your digital data? The Supreme Court will now consider

whether police can search the contents of a mobile phone without a warrant if the phone is on or around

a person during an arrest。

California has asked the justices to refrain from a sweeping ruling, particularly one that upsets the

old assumptions that authorities may search through the possessions of suspects at the time of their

arrest. It is hard, the state argues, for judges to assess the implications of new and rapidly changing

technologies。

The court would be recklessly modest if it followed California’s advice. Enough of the implications are

discernable, even obvious, so that the justice can and should provide updated guidelines to police,

lawyers and defendants。

They should start by discarding California’s lame argument that exploring the contents of a

smartphone-- a vast storehouse of digital information is similar to say, going through a suspect’s

purse .The court has ruled that police don't violate the Fourth Amendment when they go through the

wallet or pocketbook, of an arrestee without a warrant. But exploring one’s smartphone is more like

entering his or her home. A smartphone may contain an arrestee’s reading history, financial history,

medical history and comprehensive records of recent correspondence. The development of “cloud

computing,” meanwhile, has made that exploration so much the easier。

But the justices should not swallow California’s argument whole. New, disruptive technology sometimes

demands novel applications of the Constitution’s protections. Orin Kerr, a law professor, compares the

explosion and accessibility of digital information in the 21st century with the establishment of

automobile use as a digital necessity of life in the 20th: The justices had to specify novel rules for

the new personal domain of the passenger car then; they must sort out how the Fourth Amendment applies

to digital information now。

26. The Supreme Court, will work out whether, during an arrest, it is legitimate to

[A] search for suspects’ mobile phones without a warrant。

[B] check suspects’ phone contents without being authorized。

[C] prevent suspects from deleting their phone contents。

[D] prohibit suspects from using their mobile phones。

27. The author’s attitude toward California’s argument is one of

[A] tolerance。

[B] indifference。

[C] disapproval。

[D] cautiousness。

28. The author believes that exploring one’s phone content is comparable to

[A] getting into one’s residence。

[B] handing one’s historical records。

[C] scanning one’s correspondences。

[D] going through one’s wallet。

29. In Paragraph 5 and 6, the author shows his concern that

[A] principles are hard to be clearly expressed。

[B] the court is giving police less room for action。

[C] phones are used to store sensitive information。

[D] citizens’ privacy is not effective protected。

30.Orin Kerr’s comparison is quoted to indicate that

(A)the Constitution should be implemented flexibly。

(B)New technology requires reinterpretation of the Constitution。

(C)California’s argument violates principles of the Constitution。

(D)Principles of the Constitution should never be altered。

T2

26 答案B check suspects’ phone contents without being authorized

解析:细节题。根据自然段定位原则,定位到首段。根据题干关键词supreme court,whether精确定位到第一段最后一

句whether police can search the contents of a mobile phone….,与选项进行对应,即为B在不授权的情况下检查

嫌疑人的电话信息。注意A选项应是search contents。

27 答案 C disapproval

解析:态度题。根据题干California’s argument定位到第二段最后一句及第三段首句,这些句子中提到hard…

recklessly modest…等负向词,表达的是负面态度。看选项属于负面的就是disapproval。A 容忍,B冷漠是典型错误

,D粗心。

28 答案A getting into one’s residence

解析:细节题。题干问:作者认为搜索电话薄就相当于什么?根据段落界定原则定位到第四段转折处,提到But

exploring one’s smart phone is more like entering his or her home。与选项对应,A中的residence对应home,

是原文的同意替换。注意D选项不是作者的观点,不能将文中人物观点当作作者观点。

29 答案D citizens’ privacy is not effective protected

解析:细节题。根据题干定位到5段和6段,题干问作者最关注的是什么,即是相应段落的段落中心。因此,该题表面是

细节题,实质为段落核心。5段首句为中心句提到,应采取措施保护数据隐私;6段又继续陈述原则的不恰当之处。根据

这些内容,对应答案D 市民隐私未能得到有效保护。

30 答案 B New technology requires reinterpretation of the Constitution

解析:例证题。题干问的是引用Orin Kerr的目的是什么,即Orin Kerr是论据,其目的是论点。论点往往在论据的前面

,所以要找例子前面的一句话,即New, disruptive technology sometimes demands novel applications of the

Constitution’s protections。与选项对应,就是B new technology是原词复现,require等同于demands,

reinterpretation of the Constitution同义替换applications of the Constitution’s protections。

Text 3

The journal Science is adding an extra round of statistical checks to its peer-review process, editor-

in-chief Marcia McNutt announced today. The policy follows similar efforts from other journals, after

widespread concern that basic mistakes in data analysis are contributing to the irreproducibility of

many published research findings。

“Readers must have confidence in the conclusions published in our journal,” writes McNutt in an

editorial. Working with the American Statistical Association, the journal has appointed seven experts to

a statistics board of reviewing editors (SBoRE). Manu will be flagged up for additional scrutiny by the

journal’s internal editors, or by its existing Board of Reviewing Editors or by outside peer reviewers.

The SBoRE panel will then find external statisticians to review these manuscripts。

Asked whether any particular papers had impelled the change, McNutt said: “The creation of the

‘statistics board’was motivated by concerns broadly with the application of statistics and data

analysis in scientific research and is part of Science’s overall drive to increase reproducibility in

the research we publish。”

Giovanni Parmigiani, a biostatistician at the Harvard School of Public Health, a member of the SBoRE

group, says he expects the board to “play primarily an advisory role。” He agreed to join because he

“found the foresight behind the establishment of the SBoRE to be novel, unique and likely to have a

lasting impact. This impact will not only be through the publications in Science itself, but hopefully

through a larger group of publishing places that may want to model their approach after Science。”

31. It can be learned from Paragraph I that

[A] Science intends to simplify its peer-review process。

[B]journals are strengthening their statistical checks。

[C]few journals are blamed for mistakes in data analysis。

[D]lack of data analysis is common in research projects。

32. The phrase ‘flagged up” (Para.2)is the closest in meaning to

[A]found。

[B]revised。

[C]marked

[D]stored

33. Giovanni Parmigiani believes that the establishment of the SBoRE may

[A]pose a threat to all its peers

[B]meet with strong opposition

[C]increase Science’s circulation。

[D]set an example for other journals

34. David Vaux holds that what Science is doing now

A. adds to researchers’ workload。

B. diminishes the role of reviewers。

C. has room for further improvement。

D. is to fail in the foreseeable future。

35. Which of the following is the best title of the text?

A. Science Joins Push to Screen Statistics in Papers

B. Professional Statisticians Deserve More Respect

C. Data Analysis Finds Its Way onto Editors’ Desks

D. Statisticians Are Coming Back with Science

Text 3

31. 答案 B journals are strengthening their statistical checks 段落推断题 考查的是段落中心句,定位在首段

首句 The journal Science is adding an extra source at Peer-review process, editor-in- chief Marcia

McNott announced today. 《科学》 杂志将要对同行评审过程增加额外的资源。与选项B同意替换。

32. 答案 C marked 词义句意题 根据所猜短语flagged up 所在句子的句意,手稿将被flagged up以供杂志编辑、现有

的编辑评审委员会或外部同行审查。比较四个选项,只有C marked 被标记,符合题意。

33. 答案 D set an example for other journals 观点细节题 定位在四段末句 This impact will not only be

through the publications in Science itself, but hopefully through a larger group of publishing places

that may want to model their approach after Science. 这不仅对于《科学》 杂志本身的出版有影响,还有希望影

响其它的出版社,这些出版社想继《科学》 杂志之后树立自己的典型形象。选项D是这句话的概括总结。

34. 答案 D has room for further improvement 观点细节题 定位在末段末句,Vaux says that Science’s idea to

pass some papers to statisticians “has some merit, but a weakness is that ..。.”Vaux 认为《科学》 杂志

的想法有一些好处,但是有个缺点是..。.这就说明这个想法是有进一步改进的空间的。

35. 答案 A Science Joins Push to Screen Statistics in Papers 主旨大意题 本文首段首句就是全文主题句,《科

学》 杂志将要对同行评审过程增加额外的资源,而且全文其它各个段落都在围绕对这一想法不同专家的不同态度在论

述,所以选项A是对全文中心的完整表达。

[NextPage]

考研英语答案

Text 4

Two years ago, Rupert Murdoch’s daughter, Elisabeth, spoke of the “unsettling dearth of integrity

across so many of our institutions”. Integrity had collapsed, she argued, because of a collective

acceptance that the only “sorting mechanism” in society should be profit and the market. But “it’s

us, human beings, we the people who create the society we want, not profit”。

Driving her point home, she continued: “It’s increasingly apparent that the absence of purpose, of a

moral language within government, media or business could become one of the most dangerous goals for

capitalism and freedom。” This same absence of moral purpose was wounding companies such as News

International, she thought, making it more likely that it would lose its way as it had with widespread

illegal telephone hacking。

As the hacking trial concludes—finding guilty one ex-editor of the News of the World, Andy Coulson, for

conspiring to hack phones, and finding his predecessor, Rebekah Brooks, innocent of the same charge—the

wider issue of dearth of integrity still stands. Journalists are known to have hacked the phones of up

to 5,500 people. This is hacking on an industrial scale, as was acknowledged by Glenn Mulcaire, the man

hired by the News of the World in 2001 to be the point person for phone hacking. Others await trial.

This saga still unfolds。

In many respects, the dearth of moral purpose frames not only the fact of such widespread phone hacking

but the terms on which the trial took place. One of the astonishing revelations was how little Rebekah

Brooks knew of what went on in her newsroom, how little she thought to ask and the fact that she never

inquired how the stories arrived. The core of her successful defense was that she knew nothing。

In today’s world, it has become normal that well-paid executives should not be accountable for what

happens in the organizations that they run. Perhaps we should not be so surprised. For a generation, the

collective doctrine has been that the sorting mechanism of society should be profit. The words that have

mattered are efficiency, flexibility, shareholder value, business-friendly, wealth generation, sales,

impact and, in newspapers, circulation. Words degraded to the margin have been justice, fairness,

tolerance, proportionality and accountability。

The purpose of editing the News of the World was not to promote reader understanding, to be fair in what

was written or to betray any common humanity. It was to ruin lives in the quest for circulation and

impact. Ms Brooks may or may not have had suspicions about how her journalists got their stories, but

she asked no questions, gave no instructions—nor received traceable, recorded answers。

36. According to the first two paragraphs, Elisabeth was upset by

(A) the consequences of the current sorting mechanism。

(B) companies’ financial loss due to immoral practices

(C) governmental ineffectiveness on moral issues。

(D) the wide misuse of integrity among institutions。

37. It can be inferred from Paragraph 3 that

(A) Glenn Mulcaire may deny phone hacking as a crime。

(B) more journalists may be found guilty of phone hacking。

(C) Andy Coulson should be held innocent of the charge。

(D) phone hacking will be accepted on certain occasions。

38. The author believes that Rebekah Brooks’s defense

(A) revealed a cunning personality。

(B) centered on trivial issues。

(C) was hardly convincing。

(D) was part of a conspiracy。

39. The author holds that the current collective doctrine shows

(A) generally distorted values。

(B) unfair wealth distribution。

(C) a marginalized lifestyle。

(D) a rigid moral code。

40 Which of the following is suggested in the last paragraph?

(A) The quality of writings is of primary importance。

(B) Common humanity is central to news reporting。

(C) Moral awareness matters in editing a newspaper。

(D) Journalists need stricter industrial regulations。

36. 答案A. The consequences of the current sorting mechanism. 因果细节题 题目问到Elisbeth 因什么而感到沮

丧。定位在第一段第二句 Intergrity had collapsed, ..., because of a collective acceptance that the only

“sorting mechanism” in society should be profit and the market, 由于社会中唯一的分类机制是利润和市场这

一共同的观念,导致了正直这种道德品质的沦丧。

37. 答案 B more journalists may be found guilty of phone hacking 段落推断题 定位到第三段第一句 As the

hacking trial concludes.... the wider issue of dearth of integrity still stands 正如窃听案总结的那样,仍

然存在更广泛的dearth of integrity 的事件,与选项B 对应。

38. 答案 C was hardly convincing 观点细节题 根据第四段第二句中astonishing,how little...,how little...

She never ... 以及第三句中She knew nothing 的语气判断作者的态度是认为RB的辩护是没有说服力的。

39. 答案 A generally distorted values 观点细节题 题干定位在第五段第三句,答案定位在随后的第四、第五句。

The current collective doctrine 认为重要的是 efficiency, flexibility, shareholder value...., 而认为

justice, fairness..。.不重要,故扭曲了价值观。

40. 答案是C moral awareness matters in editing a newspaper. 段落推断题 定位在最后一段前两句。世界新闻杂

志的目的不是提升读者的理解能力。。。。而是为了发行量和影响力而毁了人们的生活。从ruined the lives 的表达

能看出作者希望杂志所做的是提高其道德意识,与C选项对应。

Part B

Directions:

In the following article, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 41-45, choose the most

suitable one from the list A-G to fit into each of the numbered blank. There are two extra choices,

which do not fit in any of the gaps. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

How does your reading proceed? Clearly, you try to comprehend, in the sense of identifying meanings for

individual words and working out relationships between them, drawing on your implicit knowledge of

English grammar. (41)________________. You begin to infer a context for the text, for instance, by

making decisions about what kind of speech event is evolved. Who is making the utterance, to whom, when

and where?

The ways of reading indicated here are without doubt kinds of comprehension but they show comprehension

to consist not just of passive assimilation but of active engagement in inference and problem-solving.

You infer information you feel the writer has invited you to grasp by presenting you with specific

evidence and clues. (42) ________________

Conceived in this way, comprehension will not follow exactly the same track for each reader. What is in

question is not the retrieval of an absolute, fixed or “true” meaning that can be read off and checked

for accuracy, or some timeless relationship of the text to the world. (43) _____________

Such background material inevitably reflects who we are. (44) _____________. This does not, however,

make interpretation merely relative or even pointless. Precisely because readers from different

historical periods, places and social experiences produce different but overlapping readings of the same

words on the page---including for texts that engage with fundamental human concerns--- debates about

texts can play an important role in social discussion of belief and values。

How we read a given text also depends to some extent on our particular interest in reading it. (45)

_____________. Such dimensions of reading suggest---as others introduced later in the book will also

do--that we bring an implicit (often unacknowledged) agenda to any act of reading. It does not then

necessarily follow that one kind of reading is fuller, more advanced or more worthwhile than another.

Ideally, different minds of reading inform each other, and act as useful reference points for and

counterbalances to one another. Together, they make up the reading component of your overall literacy,

or relationship to your surrounding textual environment。

[A] Are we studying that text and trying to respond in a way that fulfills the requirement of a given

course? Reading it simply for pleasure? Skimming it for information? Ways of reading on a train or in

bed are likely to differ considerably from reading in a seminar room。

[B] Factors such as the place and period in which we are reading, our gender ethnicity, age and social

class will encourage us towards certain interpretations but at the same time obscure or even close off

others。

[C] If you are unfamiliar with words or idioms, you guess at their meaning, using clues presented in the

context. On the assumption that they will become relevant later, you make a mental note of discourse

entities as well as possible links between them。

[D]In effect, you try to reconstruct the likely meanings or effects that any given sentence, image or

reference might have had: These might be the ones the author intended。

[E] You make further inferences, for instance, about how the text may be significant to you, or about

its validity—inferences that form the basis of a personal response for which the author will inevitably

be far less responsible。

[F] In plays, novels and narrative poems, characters speak as constructs created by the author, not

necessarily as mouthpieces for the author’s own thoughts。

[G]Rather, we ascribe meanings to texts on the basis of interaction between what we might call textual

and contextual material: between kinds of organizations or patterning we perceive in a text’s formal

structures (so especially its language structures) and various kinds of background, social knowledge,

belief and attitude that we bring to the text。

41 【C】

解析:41段中空,所以要看上句。空前与空后句中的主语是you,因此正确选项在C、D中存在,此其一也;D中出现了

reconstruct(重组)逻辑上是再次发生,与位于句首的逻辑发生了叙述上的矛盾。故排除D选择C。另外,C中的words or

idioms和meanings 在41空前句重现,因为前句中有identifying meanings for individual words and working out

relationships between them。

42 【E】

解析:42 段尾空,所以看上一句话。空前一句中的主语是you,因此正确选项在C、D、E中存在,此其一也;其二,该句

中主句谓语动词是infer, 与E中的宾语inferences构成逻辑对应关系。故排除C和D选择E。另外,42空前两句提到了阅

读时我们会active engagement in inference and problem-solving, 并针对作者文中的specific evidence and

clues 进行信息的推测。E选项中further 一词表明延续此话题,用for instance 具体举例说明我们对文章信息作怎

么样的推测。

43【G】

解析:43段尾空,应重点看本段上一句。同时下段开头出现了代词such background,而G中最后一句中的background与

之形成逻辑对应关系。故选择G。另外,G中Rather表示转折,与43空前句开头的not 构成“not… rather…”的“不是

……而是……”结构

44【B】

解析:44段中空,看上下句。此段空前句中有关键词background,空后句中有关键词interpretation; background逻辑

上对应G中最后一句中的background,而interpretation 逻辑对应B中最后一句中的interpretations. 故选择B。另外

,B中Factors such as the place and period in which we are reading, our gender, ethnicity, age and social

class 是44空前who we are的具体阐述。

45【A】

解析:45段中空,看上下句。最后一段首句主语是we, 所有选项中只有A和G的主语是we;但是G中首词是转折词Rather,

与首句逻辑矛盾,故排除G选择A。另外,A中具体描述了许多不同的阅读目的和方式,此为对45空前句How we read a

given text 和our particular interest in reading it 的具体阐述。A中的信息是45空后句such dimensions of

reading 的指代对象。

Part C Translation

Directions:

Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your

translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points)

Within the span of a hundred years, in the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, a tide of

emigration -one of the great folk wanderings of history-swept from Europe to America. 46) This movement,

driven by powerful motivations, built a nation out of a wilderness and, by its nature, shaped the

character and destiny of an uncharted continent。

47) The United States is the product of two principal forces-the immigration of European peoples with

their varied ideas, customs, and national characteristics and the impact of a new country which modified

these traits. Of necessity, colonial America was a projection of Europe. Across the Atlantic came

successive groups of Englishmen, Frenchmen, Germans, Scots, Irishmen, Dutchmen, Swedes, and many others

who attempted to transplant their habits and traditions to the new world. 48) But the force of

geographic conditions peculiar to America, the interplay of the varied national groups upon one another,

and the sheer difficulty of maintaining old-world ways in a raw, new continent caused significant

changes. These changes were gradual and at first scarcely visible. But the result was a new social

pattern which, although it resembled European society in many ways, had a character that was distinctly

American。

49)The first shiploads of immigrants bound for the territory which is now the United States crossed the

Atlantic more than a hundred years after the fifteenth- and sixteenth-century explorations of North

America. In the meantime, thriving Spanish colonies had been established in Mexico, the West Indies, and

South America. These travelers to North America came in small, unmercifully overcrowded craft. During

their six- to twelve-week voyage, they subsisted on meager rations. Many of the ships were lost in

storms, many passengers died of disease, and infants rarely survived the journey. Sometimes tempests

blew the vessels far off their course, and often calm brought interminable delay。

To the anxious travelers the sight of the American shore brought almost inexpressible relief. Said one

chronicler, "The air at twelve leagues' distance smelt as sweet as a new-blown garden." The colonists'

first glimpse of the new land was a vista of dense woods. 50) The virgin forest with its richness and

variety of trees was a real treasure-house which extended from Maine all the way down to Georgia. Here

was abundant fuel and lumber. Here was the raw material of houses and furniture, ships and potash, dyes

and naval stores。

46) This movement, driven by powerful motivations, built a nation out of a wilderness and, by its

nature, shaped the character and destiny of an uncharted continent。

【参考译文】在多种强大的动机驱动下,这次移民在一片荒野上建起了一个国家,其本身塑造了一个未知大陆的性格和

命运。

47) The United States is the product of two principal forces——the immigration of European peoples with

their varied ideas, customs, and national characteristics and the impact of a new country which modified

these traits。

【参考译文】美国产生于两个主要力量:思想习俗、民族特色各异的欧洲移民,以及修改这些特征的新国家所产生的影

响。

48 But the force of geographic conditions peculiar to America, the interplay of the varied national

groups upon one another, and the sheer difficulty of maintaining old-world ways in a raw, new continent

caused significant changes。

【参考译文】但是,美国拥有独特的地理条件,不同民族之间产生了相互的作用,因此,在一片原始新大陆上,维护旧

大陆方式产生了纯粹的困难,这一切引发了重大的变化。

49 The first shiploads of immigrants bound for the territory which is now the United States crossed the

Atlantic more than a hundred years after the fifteenth- and sixteenth-century explorations of North

America。

【参考译文】在15-16世纪北美探索的一百多年之后,运往如今的美国这片新领土的第一船移民横渡了大西洋。

50 The virgin forest with its richness and variety of trees was a real treasure-house which extended

from Maine all the way down to Georgia。

【参考译文】拥有丰富多样树种的原始森林是一个真正的宝库,它从缅因州一直延伸到乔治亚州。

Section III Writing

Part A

Directions:

You are going to hold a club reading session. Write an email of about 100 words recommending a book to

the club members。

You should state reasons for your recommendation。

You should write neatly on the ANWSER SHEET. Do not sign you own name at the end of the letter, use “Li

Ming ” instead. Do not write the address 。(10 points)

Dear friends,

I am writing to tell you about a fantastic book I have just read, as we always share the same taste of

books。

The book is called Journey to the West, which tells us a story that four monks conquered multiple

handicaps to achieve their final destination. Besides the touching and thrilling plot, the book also

features humorous languages, thanks to the talented author。

So I recommend it to all of you as one of the favorite books that I have ever read. I am sure you will

love it as much as I do. I am looking forward to discussing more with you after you read it。

Yours sincerely,

· Li Ming

Part B

Part B

52. Directions:

Write an essay of 160—200 words based on the following picture.in your essay, you should

1. describe the pictures briefly,

2. interpret its intended meaning, and

3. give your comments。

You should write neatly on ANSWER SHEET . (20 points)

A group of friends, boys or girls, are having a dinner party while each one of them is checking messages

in their mobile phones without saying a word to one another, leaving the dishes untouched. We are

informed that this is a gathering in the era of mobile phone。


The above picture unveils a common social phenomenon and the symbolic meaning of the photo is the effect

of the mobile phone on people’s way of life. Undoubtedly, the phone provides us with considerable

convenience, making many things possible which are beyond our dreams. As a communication tool, the phone

makes us closer than ever before by providing immediate communication. Meanwhile, there are negative

effects on our personal life. As is shown in the picture, people are imprisoned in their own world! They

choose contacting online rather than communicating face to face。

Accordingly, enjoying the convenience provided by the phones, we should bear in mind that human beings

are social beings who need real interpersonal interactions! Joint efforts are needed to ensure people to

have face-to-face communication! I believe a harmonious relationship between friends is awaiting us if

we set aside our mobile phones and enjoy the untouched meal! 
2015考研英语一试题答案

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