您现在的位置: 主页 > 英语教学 > 高考英语 > > 正文

2013高考英语阅读理解分析

作者:admin    文章来源:盐田区外国语学校    更新时间:2018-01-04

 在全国各省市高考试题中,阅读理解的分值普遍为40分,占总分值的四分之一左右,所以常有人说“得阅读者得天下”。但是,高考英语阅读理解的得分情况并不乐观,其中,主旨题是阅读理解题中的高难度题,是考生失分最多的题型,因为这类试题既考查考生略读文章、领会大意的能力,也对考生的归纳、概括能力提出了较高的要求。一般情况下,阅读理解的主旨题可衍生出六种变体,笔者将着重探讨这六种变体及其解题策略,期望对考生有所裨益。
  1.中心大意题
  文章的中心大意往往与文章体裁有很大关系。议论文主要是论述一个观点,说明文则是说明一个事物的用途或制作过程,而新闻报道通常是报道一个人物的事迹、一次重大事件等。
  做这类题时,关键是要找到主题段,找到主题段后再确定主题句。主题段常作为首段或尾段,而主题句多居于段首或段尾,当然有时也居于段中。找到主题句后将其与所给选项进行对比从而选出答案。如没有主题句,考生就要从该段中找到主题词(组),看哪个选项包含这些词或词组。如没有主题段,考生就要结合各段的大意,归纳出主旨。
  这类题的常见提问方式有下列几种:(1)What is the author’s main point? (2)Which of the following best expresses the main idea? (3)The main idea/general idea/main theme of this passage is ______. (4)Which of the following best states the theme of passage?
  例:(2013年重庆卷)Almost every machine with moving parts has wheels, yet no one knows exactly when the first wheel was invented or what it was used for. We do know, however, that they existed over 5,500 years ago in ancient Asia.
  The oldest known transport wheel was discovered in 2002 in Slovenia. It is over 5,100 years old. Evidence suggests that wheels for transport didn’t become popular for a while, though. This could be because animals did a perfectly good job of carrying farming tools and humans around.
  But it could also be because of a difficult situation. While wheels need to roll on smooth surfaces, roads with smooth surfaces weren’t going to be constructed until there was plenty of demand for them. Eventually, road surfaces did become smoother, but this difficult situation appeared again a few centuries later. There had been no important changes in wheel and vehicle design before the arrival of modern road design.
  In the mid-1700s, a Frenchman came up with a new design of road— a base layer(层)of large stones covered with a thin layer of smaller atones. A Scotsman improved on this design in the 1820s and a strong, lasting road surface became a reality. At around the same time, metal hubs (the central part of a wheel) came into being, followed by the pneumatic tyre (充气轮胎)in 1846. Alloy wheels were invented in 1967, sixty years after the appearance of tarmacked roads(柏油路). As wheel design took off, vehicles got faster and faster.
  67.What is the passage mainly about?
  A. The beginning of road design.
  B. The development of transport wheels.
  C. The history of public transport.
  D. The invention of fast-moving vehicles.
  解析:B。这是一篇说明文,文中没有主题段,但通过阅读文章不难发现,各段都在讲述车轮的发展历史,所以B项(车轮的发展)很好地概括了文章大意。  2.标题辨识题
  标题辨识题与中心大意题具有共通之处。当文章主旨是一个短语或一句简洁的话时,我们可把它看作标题,但是文章主旨往往是作者写作目的或写作内容的归纳,一般不作为文章标题。此外,标题必须反映文章的中心大意,概括性强,表达精确,这就要求答案的归纳要恰如其分,既不能只提及文中的一个细节,也不能将本文以外的内容概括于其中。
  这类题常用的提问方式有:what would be the best title for the text?/Which is the best title for the passage?
  例:(2013年安徽卷)Argentina in the late nineteenth century was an exciting place. Around 1870, it was experiencing an economic(经济的)boom, and the capital, Buenos Aires, attracted many people. Farmers, as well as a flood of foreigners from Spain and Italy, came to Buenos Aires seeking jobs. These jobs didn’t pay well, and the people felt lonely and disappointed with their new life in the city. As the unhappy newcomers mixed together in the poor parts of the city, the dance known as the tango(探戈舞)came into being.
  At the beginning, the tango was a dance of the lower classes. It was danced in the bars and streets. At that time there were many fewer women than men, so if a man didn’t want to be left out, his only choice was to dance with another man so that he could attract the attention of the few available women. Gradually, the dance spread into the upper class of Argentinean society and became more respectable.
  In Europe at this time, strong interest in dance from around the world was beginning. The interest in international dance was especially evident in Paris. Every kind of dance from ballet(芭蕾舞)to belly dancing could be found on the stages of the Paris theaters of the Paris theaters. After tango dances from Argentina arrived in Europe, they began to draw the interest of the public as they performed their exiting dance in cafes. Though not everyone approved of the new dance, saying it was a little too shocking, the dance did find enough supporters to make it popular.
  The popularity(流行)of the tango continued to grow in many other parts of the world. Soldiers who returned to the United States from World War I brought the tango to North America. It reached Japan in 1926, and in 2003 the Argentinean embassy in Seoul hired a local tango dancer to act as a kind of dance ambassador, and promote tango dancing throughout South Korea.
  75.What can be the best title for the text?
  A. How to Dance the Tango
  B. The History of the Tango
  C. How to Promote the Tango
  D. The Modern Tango Boom
  解析:B。这是一篇说明文,文章前两段讲了探戈舞在阿根廷的起源和发展,第三段叙述探戈舞在欧洲的发展,最后一段讲述其在世界其他地方的流行。综合各段内容,全文主旨是介绍探戈舞的起源及其发展史。因此,选B项作为文章的标题非常贴切。
  3.写作目的题
  写作目的与文章主旨不同,但与其密切相关,是文章主旨的一种变体。文章主旨是文章的中心思想,而写作目的则阐述文章为何要表达这个中心思想,即作者为何写这篇文章。不同的文体,写作目的也不同——广告的写作目的是说服大家去做某事(购物、旅游等);说明文的写作目的是向人们展示某物的用途或制作过程;研究报告的写作目的是向人们展示某种研究结果;议论文的写作目的是论述一个道理或证明一个观点;记叙文的写作目的是向人们分享经历、叙述一件事情或表达感情…… 这类题常用的设问形式是:What is the purpose of this text?/What’s the author’s purpose in writing the passage?
  例:(2013年北京卷)
  EP Portable Heater
  We all know that the cost of heating our homes will continue to be a significant burden on the family budget. Now millions of people are saving on their heating bills with the EP portable heater. With over one million satisfied customers around the world, the new EP heats better and faster, saves more on heating bills, and runs almost silent.
  The EP has no exposed heating parts that can cause a fire. The outside of EP only gets warm to the touch so that it will not burn children or pets.
  The EP will not reduce oxygen in the room. With other heaters, you’ll notice that you get sleepy when the heat comes on because they are burning up oxygen.
  The advanced EP also heats the room evenly, wall to wall and floor to ceiling. It comfortably covers an area up to 350 square feet. Other heaters heat rooms unevenly with most of the heat concentrated to the center of the room. And they only heat an area a few feet around the heater. With the EP, the temperature will not vary in any part of the room.
  The EP comes with a 3-year warranty(保修)and a 60-day, no questions asked, satisfaction guarantee. If you are not totally satisfied, return it to our expense and your money will be given back to you.
  Now, we have a special offer for 10 days, during which you can enjoy a half price discount and a free delivery. If you order after that, we reserve the right to either accept or reject order requests at the discounted price.
  Take action right now!
  59.The main purpose of the passage is to _____.
  A. persuade people to buy the product
  B. advise people to save on heating bills
  C. report the new development of portable heaters
  D. compare the functions of different heater brands
  解析:A。文章先是叙述了这种加热器的种种优点,接着提到了优质服务和价格折扣,再加上最后那句“Take action right now”,不难看出这是一则广告,所以本文的写作目的显然是劝说人们购买这种产品,故选A。
  4.段落大意题
  要准确概括某段话的大意,必须知道这段话的逻辑结构。如是按“总—分”顺序组织,首句作总的说明,其他句子对其进行具体论述,这种结构的主题句就在段首;如是按“分—总”顺序组织,主题句就在段尾;如是按“分—总—分”的顺序组织,则主题句就在这段话的中间。有时,作者没有写出明显的主题句,考生要学会根据段落的内容去概括出主题句。
  这类题有下列常见的提问方式:(1)What does the author express in Paragraph...? (2)The main idea of the second paragraph probably is_______. (3)The first paragraph is mainly about_______. (4)Which of the following can best summarize Para. 1?
  例:(2012年江西卷)For those who make journeys across the world, the speed of travel today has turned the countries into a series of villages.Distances between them appear no greater to a modern traveler than those which once faced men as they walked from village to village. Jet planes fly people from one end of the earth to the other, allowing them a freedom of movement undreamt of a hundred years ago.  71.What does the writer try to express in Paragraph 1?
  A. Travel by plane has speeded up the growth of villages.
  B. The speed of modern travel has made distances relatively short.
  C. The freedom of movement has helped people realize their dreams.
  D. Man has been fond of traveling rather than staying in one place.
  解析:B。本段的逻辑结构是“总—分”结构。首句就是主题句,后面通过今昔交通方式的对比说明主题“对于喜欢去世界各地旅游的人来说,现在的旅行速度使得在国家之间的旅行就像在村庄之间旅行那样快”。而B项“现代旅行的速度使得距离相对缩短了”与主题句意思一致。

[1]