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高考英语复习:宾语补足语

作者:admin    文章来源:盐田区外国语学校    更新时间:2017-12-29

高考复习:宾语补足语
有些及物动词接了宾语意义仍不完整,还需要一个其他的句子成分来补充说明宾语的意义、状态等,这种句子成分就称为“宾语补足语”。我们把“宾语+宾语补足语”合称为“复合宾语”。能够充当宾语补足语的有:名词、形容词、副词、介词短语、动词不定式和分词等。
  一、名词作宾语补足语
  常接名词作宾语补足语的动词有call, elect, name, think, make, find, choose等。
  例如:We call Li Ning the prince of gymnastics. 我们称李宁为体操王子。
  They find Tom a clever boy. 他们发现汤姆是一个聪明的男孩。
  We made Li Lei our monitor. 我们选李雷当班长。
  二、形容词作宾语补足语
  常接形容词作宾语补足语的动词有keep, find, make, wish, leave, think等。
  例如:Let’s keep our classroom clean. 让我们保持教室清洁。
  The workers find the manager’s advice acceptable. 工人们发现经理的建议可接受。
  Kind?hearted parents have unknowingly left their children defenseless against failure. 好心的父母已经不知不觉地让他们的孩子们失去了抵抗失败的能力。
  三、副词作宾语补足语
  常用作宾语补足语的副词有down, up, here, there, home, in, inside, out, outside, anywhere等。
  例如:Keep your pets inside as much as you can when the weather is bad. 天气恶劣的时候,尽量把你的宠物放在家里。
  Mr. Wu drove us home. 吴先生开车送我们回家。
  Have you seen him anywhere? 你有没有在哪见过他?
  四、介词短语作宾语补足语
  介词短语作宾语补足语常表示宾语所处的状态。
  例如:Make yourself at home. 请随便,别拘束。
  We treat him as our good friend. 我们把他当作好朋友。
  五、动词不定式作宾语补足语
  充当宾语补足语的动词不定式有三种情况:
  1. 带to的动词不定式
  接带to的动词不定式作宾语补足语的动词主要有allow, advise, ask, beg, cause, encourage, expect, forbid, get, tell, like, want, invite, permit, persuade, order, want, warn, wish等。
  例如:Red can cause a person’s blood pressure to rise and increase people’s appetites. 红色会导致人们的血压上升和增强人们的食欲。
  Circumstances do not permit me to help you. 情况不允许我帮助你。
  I advise you to listen to teachers’ lectures attentively at school. 我建议你在学校要认真听老师讲课。
  Father has warned me to stand on my own legs after leaving school. 父亲已经告诉我了,毕业以后必须自立。
  【经典例析1】(2012上海卷)As Jack left his membership card at home, he wasn’t allowed into the sports club.
  A. going B. to go
  C. go D. gone
  【解析】答案选B。考查非谓语动词作补足语。allow sb. to do sth.的被动结构是sb. be allowed to do sth.,故答案为B项。
  【经典例析2】(2012江西卷)Having finished her project, she was invited by the school to the new students.
  A. speaking B. having spoken
  C. to speak D. to have spoken
  【解析】答案选C。本题考查invite sb. to do sth.结构,其被动语态为sb. be invited to do sth.,排除A、B项;而to have done表示已经完成的动作,不合本题逻辑。
  2. 不带to的动词不定式
  接不带to的动词不定式作宾语补足语的动词主要有“使役动词”(let, make, have)和“感官动词”(see, hear, watch, notice, observe, feel, look at, listen to)等两大类。
  例如:I often hear him sing in his room. 我经常听见他在房间里唱歌。

  He often makes us laugh. 他经常令我们大笑。
  I saw him enter the shop and buy some fruits. 我看到他进了商店,买了一些水果。
  【经典例析3】—Excuse me, sir, but where is Room 301?
  —Just a minute. I’ll have Bob ______ you to your room.
  A. show B. shows
  C. to show D. showing
  【解析】答案选A。在使役动词have后作宾补的可以是不带to的动词不定式,也可以是分词,但是have somebody doing something表示“让某人一直做某事”,不符合本题逻辑,排除D。故答案是A。
  3. 可带to也可不带to的动词不定式
  动词help后面的宾语补足语可带to 也可不带to。
  例如:These activities improve the friendship and help young people develop positive self?respect, confidence and life direction. 这些活动增进友谊,并且帮助年轻人培养乐观的自尊、自信和生活方向。
  六、分词作宾语补足语
  作宾语补足语的分词又分为现在分词和过去分词两种情况:
  1. 现在分词作宾语补足语——表示动作正在进行,宾语和宾语补足语在逻辑上为主谓关系。
  例如:I saw the students playing football on the playground. 我看见学生们正在操场上踢足球。
  We heard her playing the piano when we passed her house. 经过她家门口时,我们听到她在弹钢琴。
  2. 过去分词作宾语补足语——表示宾语与宾语补足语之间是逻辑上的动宾关系。
  例如:I had my bike repaired yesterday. 昨天我请人修理了我的自行车。
  When they returned ten years later, they found Nanjing greatly changed. 他们十年后回来,发现南京变化很大。
  Will you make yourself known to us, please? 请你自我介绍一下,好吗?

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